Change of technology is at the pace of it was never before. Market conditions, harsh competition and time-to-market are biggest concerns of today's organizations, especially for technology companies. In order to adapt this fast changing environment, most of the organizations adapt Agile Project Management methodologies. This enables the organizations to produce valuable outputs faster. And Scrum Framework is the most popular Agile Methodology.
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Product Owner is responsible from the overall success of the product, its position in the market and financial success as well. Depending on the vision of the product and market conditions, He lists the product requirements that need to be developed. Each requirement is named as Product Backlog Item and expressed as user stories. Product Backlog Items in the list are ordered, items in the top have the highest priority while the ones on the bottom have the least priority. Order of items or necessity of the features may change during time depending on the evolution of the product and market conditions. Product Owner must keep this list up-to-date.
Development Team consists of 3-to-9 members and responsible from the development of the Product Backlog items. Development Team is self-organizing and cross-functional. Each member is called as “developer” and any of the development, test, integration and testing tasks are done by these team members. During Sprint Planning meeting, the Development Team evaluates the Product Backlog items residing on the top of the list. Product Owner describes “what” he expects from each item. If there are any questions or unclear points, these are clarified by the Product Owner.
Depending on the capacity and velocity of the Development Team, items that will be delivered during the next sprint are determined. And the list of the Product Backlog Items that will be delivered during the sprint is called Sprint Backlog. Development Team decides which Product Backlog items will be put in the Sprint Backlog. And each Product Backlog Item put in the Sprint Backlog is broken down to tasks that will require one day or less effort by a developer.
Scrum Master facilitates the team during meetings and makes sure the team applies the time-boxes during the meetings. Sprint Planning duration must be eight hours for a 1-month sprint. For shorter sprint durations, shorter sprint planning meetings are done accordingly.
After the planning, the Development Team starts to work on the tasks in the Sprint Backlog during the Sprint. Sprint durations are determined between 2-to-4 weeks usually. During a project, Sprint Duration is determined in the beginning and does not change. Sprint Goal is defined and describes what needs to be completed to consider a Sprint as successful. During the Sprint, each developer takes that Sprint Tasks from the Sprint Backlog based on the priority order. Once the developer completes it, he takes another task from the remaining Sprint Tasks till end of the Sprint.
During the Sprint, Development Team gathers up daily in Daily Scrum stand-up meetings. During the Daily Scrums, each development team member expresses what tasks he accomplished since last daily scrum, what he is planning to complete until the next Daily Scrum and whether there are any impediments on his tasks to complete. Development Team discusses to find solutions for impediments. Scrum Master ensures the Daily Scrum will be completed in fifteen-minute time box.
Once all Sprint Tasks in the Sprint Backlog are finished and the Sprint Goal is achieved a new Increment is delivered. Increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog items completed during a sprint and all previous sprints.
At the end of the Sprint, Sprint Review meeting is organized by the Product Owner. All stakeholders and the Scrum Team attends the Sprint Review meeting. During the Sprint Review Meeting, the Development Team demonstrates what they completed since last Sprint and Product Owner gives information about what is remaining on the Product Backlog and estimated time to complete the project if needed. Stakeholders give feedback about the Increment during the Sprint Review and Product Owner evaluates the feedbacks to revise the Product Backlog accordingly. For a 1-month Sprint duration, Sprint Review must be completed in four hours. For shorter sprint durations, shorter Sprint Reviews must be organized.
After the Sprint Review meeting, the Development Team gathers-up in Sprint Retrospective meeting. During the Sprint Retrospective meeting, team discusses what they done good and what they could have done better. Good practices are aimed to be followed during the next Sprints as well and for improvement areas, team plans actions and aims to improve these weaknesses during the next Sprints.
Following figure illustrates Scrum Framework.
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